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Spectral efficiency measures how well a given wireless protocol or multiplexing technique uses the bandwidth available to it.In the 5GHz band, where channels are fairly wide (20MHz ), spectral efficiency isn’t so important.It’s not just about fast Internet speeds to and from your service provider.It’s also about transferring files between devices in your home or office, streaming video from a network-attached drive to a television, and gaming with the lowest network latencies possible.In cellular bands, though, channels are often only 5MHz wide, which makes spectral efficiency very important.802.11ac also introduces standardized beamforming (802.11n had it, but it wasn’t standardized, which made interoperability an issue).
In essence, 802.11ac is a supercharged version of 802.11n.
802.11ac is dozens of times faster, and delivers speeds ranging from 433 Mbps (megabits per second) up to several gigabits per second.
To achieve that kind of throughput, 802.11ac works exclusively in the 5GHz band, uses plenty of bandwidth (80 or 160MHz), operates in up to eight spatial streams (MIMO), and employs a kind of technology called beamforming that sends signal directly to client devices.
The older 802.11n uses this second method, which can be implemented by both routers and mobile devices.
Finally, 802.11ac, like 802.11 versions before it, is fully backwards compatible — so you can buy an 802.11ac router today, and it should work just fine with your older 802.11n and 802.11g Wi-Fi devices.
To boost throughput further, 802.11ac also introduces 256-QAM modulation (up from 64-QAM in 802.11n), which squeezes 256 different signals over the same frequency by shifting and twisting each into a slightly different phase.